For purposes of dependability evaluation, how many 2 moment intervals coded for each adjustable linked to sexual minorities ended up being summed throughout the periods within an episode to measure the frequency with which exact same sex intimate behavior and speak about nonheterosexual intimate problems took place within each system episode. This summing triggered converting nominal data (for example., presence/absence) during the 2 minute interval degree into frequency counts during the system degree (wide range of intervals by which same sex sexual behavior took place the episode). Therefore, the reliability analyses utilized the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC). The ICC is an evaluation regarding the percentage of variance into the measures owing to coder agreement corrected for opportunity. For period information including the regularity matters utilized right here, the ICC is the same as Krippendorf’s alpha (Krippendorf, 1980).
An ICC of .70 had been utilized once the criterion for appropriate dependability. Both things utilized to measure the existence of nonheterosexual themes significantly surpassed this criterion. The ICC for exact exact same sex intimate behavior had been .97 in 12 months 1 and .99 in 12 months 2. The ICC for speak about nonheterosexual intimate problems ended up being .89 in 12 months 1 and .95 in 12 months 2.
To respond to the initial collection of research questions concerning the prevalence of nonheterosexual product on tv, we utilized episode degree information ( e.g., percentages of episodes containing sex that is same behavior and containing explore intercourse associated with nonheterosexuals) and chi square analyses to look at between team distinctions with your nominal information. When it comes to 2nd pair of research concerns, we utilized just those reveals that included nonheterosexual sexual content and evaluated their regularity across 2 moment periods ( e.g., wide range of periods per hour of system time with nonheterosexual intimate talk). Of these analyses, we used t tests or analysis of variance (ANOVA) to try team distinctions. Significant omnibus F tests had been followed up with post hoc comparisons using Tamhane’s T2 test, which doesn’t assume equal cellular size or equal variance, to determine significant distinctions across teams.
Results.Prevalence of Nonheterosexual Sexual Content
About one out of six programs inside our examples contained any content that is sexualbehavior or talk) pertaining to nonheterosexuals. The increase that is slight nonheterosexual intimate content through the 2001 2002 period (14.5%) towards the 2002 2003 season (17.4%) ended up being significant, П‡ 2 (1, N = 2715) = 4.15, p Table 1 shows the portion of suggests that contained any exact same intercourse intimate behavior and any intimate talk linked to nonheterosexuals by system genres, by form of system, and also by time of day aired. For system kind, the 11 channels had been categorized into certainly one of three groups: commercial broadcast (including the 3 major sites ABC, CBS, and NBC in addition to Fox, UPN, and WB), cable music activity (including BET and MTV), and premium cable film (which included Cinemax, HBO, and Showtime). Pertaining to period of time broadcast, shows airing between 3:00 and 8:00 p.m. had been categorized as late afternoon/early night and those shown between 8:00 and 11:00 p.m. were classified as prime time.
Note: Within style of community and time of day aired, percentages within the exact same line that don’t share subscripts vary at p dining Table 1 ). In many situations, there is a top amount of correspondence between a genre’s general positions for exact exact same intercourse behavior that is sexual talk about nonheterosexual intimate problems. Also, genres’ standings on both these factors had been fairly stable http://chaturbatewebcams.com/redhead over the two tv periods.
Three genres had been regularly lower in both kinds of nonheterosexual sexual content: Children’s cartoons (none of which included sexual behavior or intimate talk associated with nonheterosexuals in a choice of 12 months), news publications (0% for behavior and talk in 12 months 1; 3.2per cent and 6.5%, correspondingly, for behavior and talk in 12 months 2), and talk programs (0 and 3.0per cent, respectively, for behavior and talk in 12 months 1; 2.2 and 8.9per cent, respectively, for behavior and talk for 12 months 2). 3 Genres that had a tendency to possess the best proportions of programs with nonheterosexual content had been variety/comedy and component movie. Designed for TV movies and programs classified as вЂњotherвЂќ additionally had fairly high proportions with nonheterosexual content that is sexual nonetheless, both these groups included only a small amount of shows (letter = 7), rendering it tough to draw conclusions about them. Consequently, we do not highlight the findings associated with them although we include these latter two genres in the tables.